Successful application of deltamethrin pouron to cattle in a campaign against tsetse flies glossina spp. Three trypanosoma brucei stocks were used for infection of tsetse flies and mice, the antar1 strain and two transgenic lines of the pleiomorphic antat1. Full text full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Discussion the results of the longitudinal study show an uneven distribution of tsetse inside the ngr, and a low apparent abundance of tsetse flies. Tsetse flies are found only in africa, where they occur in a belt south of the sahara deserts.
The sterile insect technique for control of tsetse flies in africa by willem takken and michael weiss african trypanosomiasis and its major vector, the tsetse fly, have drawn worldwide. Adult bloodfeeding tsetse flies, trypanosomes, microbiota and the fluctuating environment in subsaharan africa article pdf available in the isme journal 97 december 2014 with 299 reads. Links to pubmed are also available for selected references. Noting that eradication of tsetse flies would significantly contribute to increasing human well being and productivity of crops and livestock and to reducing rural poverty on the african continent. Packer trypanosomiasis and land use in africa tala research group, department of zoology, university of. Their present distribution has bean recently summarized by ford. Predicted distribution of tsetse fly in africa, 2000 source. Malawi fights tsetse flies, disease after wildlife relocated 30 october 2019, by kenneth jali in this june 1, 2002 file photo dead tsetse flies on. Consequently there is high land pressure there, whereas in the fertile valleys and lowlands the population is sparse. The purpose of this coordinated research project crp automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes was to develop appropriate semi automated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product.
The tsetse are obligate parasites that live by feeding. Chemical control when chemical agents are used to combat tsetse flies, it must be taken into account that tsetse flies spend about 50% of their lifespan under the ground as pupae. The authors and publishers of these original drawings are also gratefully acknowledged. This slow rate of reproduction means that tsetse populations can be eradicated by killing just 23% of the female population per day. People who live in or are traveling to subsaharan africa avoid tsetse flies because they bite, and can transmit the parasite trypanosoma brucei which causes human african trypanosomiasis hat, also referred to as african sleeping sickness. African trypanosomiasis and its major vector, the tsetse fly, have drawn world wide attention due to the devasting effects they cause in large areas of tropical. Tsetse flies and trypanosomosis in south africa and the reentry of south africa into the field of tsetse and trypanosomosis research. Tsetse flies are arranged taxonomically and ecologically into three groups. The dermis as a delivery site of trypanosoma brucei for. Ecology and behaviour of tsetse food and agriculture. This paper tests the hypothesis that the tsetse reduced the ability of africans to generate an agricultural surplus historically. Faoiaea standard operating procedures for massrearing. They feed solely on blood of humans, domestic animals and, of course, wild animals.
Their present distribution has bean recently summarized by ford 1963 but more sccurate data for. All are exclusively haematophagous and confined to subsaharan africa. All these measures are important elements for an integrated approach to control the spread of vector. Tsetse flies transmit parasites that induce fatal diseases in both humans and animals. Integrated control of tsetse flies in africa from modelling to implementation by livestock farmers a nimal trypanosomiasis is a true obstacle holding back cattle rearing in countries infested by tsetse flies. In the fight against tsetse flies, blue is the new black. Symptoms include fatigue, high fever, headaches, and muscle aches. Glossina are the sole cyclical vectors of african trypanosomoses. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile. Genetics, evolution, and role as vectors abstract tsetse flies diptera. Traps and targets are a key component of largescale interventions against tsetse, including the. Singlecell rna sequencing of trypanosoma brucei from. The sunlight attracts tsetse flies into the cage, which get killed by the heat from the sun.
In this way the tsetse flies acquire and transmit the trypanosomes that cause nagana and sleeping sickness. Pan african tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication campaign. Noting further that a multisectoral approach to tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis eradication. Examples are the percentage of females caught by a trap, the density of tsetse living in an area, and the distribution of resting sites. The tsetse fly is unique to africa and transmits a parasite harmful to humans and lethal to livestock. Predicting the distribution of tsetse flies in west africa using temporal fourier processed meteorological satellite data by d. The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies glossina spp. In tropical africa tsetse flies genus glossina are the vectors of sleeping sickness human african trypanosomiasis, hat and the livestock disease nagana or african animal trypanosomiasis aat.
Tsetse fly is an insect that belongs to the housefly family. The medically important species and subspecies belong to the morsitans and palpalis groups. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 2. African trypanosomiasis, also called african sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease spread by the tsetse fly. For a variety of reasons, game destruction as a method of fly control is gradually being replaced by other methods. Glossinidae by gas chromatographic analysis of cuticular components volume 83 issue 4 d.
A convenient and accurate measure of size is necessary for studies on the physiology of tsetse flies glossina. The tsetse fly is attracted to bright colors, very dark colors, metallic fabric, and the color blue. The sterile insect technique for control of tsetse flies in africa iaea. Highthroughput rna sequencing rnaseq analysis from the midgut, cardia, and sg tissues of parasitized tsetse flies. Agents disappear within a few hours after death of the vertebrate host. Tsetse massrearingis simplified in the laboratory because only two developmental stages need to be considered, i. Some facts concerning the life of tsetse cannot be described for individual flies, but only for a group or sample of flies. In the fight against tsetse flies, blue is the new. Epidemiology tsetse flies infest 10 million square kilometres and affect 37 countries, mostly in africa, where it is known as nagana. Tsetse flies are of paramount importance in africa because of their role as vectors of trypano some infections of man and domestic animals, which have had a profound effect on the economy and development of. Glossinidae are an ancient taxon of one genus,glossina, and limited species diversity.
Human african trypanosomiasis hat is a neglected tropical disease that occurs in subsaharan africa, within the distributional limits of the tsetse fly vector. Travelers who plan to spend a lot of time outdoors or. Anyway to address the original post, tsetse flies are terrible little creatures. Travelers who go to subsaharan africa are at risk see map. Tsetse flies, being the vector of human and animal trypanosomosis, constitute one of the major health and agricultural livelihood constraints of subsaharan africa. As said above they are often found in pockets and you can then rush through the pocket. There are 23 species of tsetse flies that can be found in the midcontinental africa. Glossina is the genus name for flies that fall under the common name of tsetse fly. They exist on the planet at least 34 million years in the unchanged form. Review of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis in south africa.
The tsetse fly catches can also be sorted by age or. Safarieyes, would love to know which repeleant works on tsetse. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly glossina genus bites which have acquired their. Goats and soda for some unknown reason, the insects that transmit sleeping sickness in. The word tsetse means fly in tswana, and refers to all 23 species of the fly genus glossina. Inside the tsetse fly, the parasite is able to survive and reproduce, infecting the fly for the duration of its life. While extensive knowledge on the interactions between bloodstreamform parasites and their mammalian host exists, information on the in vivo tsetsespecific trypanosome stages is sparse. The slowprogressing form, caused by trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is found in western and central africa. There are 23 species of tsetse varying in size from 6 to 16 mm in length 1, 2. For purposes of keeping records, tsetse fly catches are counted and recorded.
Where the general climate is too hot, tsetse flies may make use of local cooler areas, for example along rivers having gallery forest, in which to live. In this june 1, 2002 file photo dead tsetse flies on display in a laboratory run by the international livestock research institute in ghibe valley, near addis ababa, ethiopia. The below mentioned article provides notes on tsetse flies as vectors. Reproduction in tsetse flies is by adenotrophic viviparity, where the. Distribution and density of tsetse flies glossinidae. Yet, such animal production is crucial for the food security of numerous african populations, providing. Malawi fights tsetse flies, disease after wildlife relocated. The sterile insect technique for control of tsetse flies. Collection, identification and dissection of tsetse flies. Ethnic groups inhabiting tsetsesuitable areas were less. The effect of the tsetse fly on african development. Developing a continental atlas of the distribution and trypanosomal. In sw ethiopia the lowlands are infested by tsetse flies and so most people live and farm in the highlands.
Tsetse flies as vectors with diagram biology discussion. Tsetse fly, genus glossina, also spelled tsetse, also called tiktik fly, any of about two to three dozen species of bloodsucking flies in the housefly family, muscidae order diptera, that occur only in africa and transmit sleeping sickness african trypanosomiasis in humans and a similar disease called nagana in domestic animals. Conservation of tsetse flies at 10c in ice boxes vet. In humans, the parasite quickly begins to reproduce and in the advanced stage of the disease, it attacks the central nervous system. Bulletin of entomological research 88, supplement 1, s7s59. In contrast to other dipteran vectors, both male and female tsetse feed on blood, taking a new blood meal every few. The remaining four tsetse flies were captured during the rainy season two flies at trapping site 7, one fly at trapping site 6, and one fly at trapping site 8. The flies resemble normal house flies, but can be identified by two distinguishing characteristics. Biological control of tsetse by the sterile insect technique. So glossina morsitans, glossina fusca and glossina palpalis are. Bouyer wednesday 04 february h30 identification of species, wing 9h00 3h ecology of tsetse flies 1h taxonomy and distribution of tsetse 1h dissection of tsetse principles 30 min j. It had long been known that domestic stock could not be kept where tsetse flies occurred and that disease was associated with the flies.
More than 70 million people are at risk for human african trypanosomiasis hat in 36 countries. For a more detailed description of the life cycle and general biology of tsetse flies, see stephen leaks excellent book leak, 1999. Of these, the complete removal of bush cover will always effectively eradicate tsetse flies, but in order to save time, labour and money, partial clearing selective or discriminative is. The polythene bag is used as a cage for holding and suffocating tsetse flies.
Microarchitecture of the tsetse fly proboscis parasites. African trypanosomiasis and its major vector, the tsetse fly, have drawn worldwide attention due to the devasting effects they cause in large areas of tropical. At the website of program against african trypanosomosis paat distribution maps of the different glossina species may be consulted and downloaded as a pdf. A linear measurement provides an index of size that remains constant throughout the life of the fly, but the. Predicting the distribution of tsetse flies in west africa. Tsetse biology, systematics and distribution, techniques. Tsetse flies, large biting flies, which populate most of midcontinental africa between the sahara and the kalahari deserts, are vectors for singlecell parasites known as trypanosomes. Tsetse flies are bloodsucking flies of the genus glossina.872 1544 352 1293 1333 1028 1017 1433 1374 662 819 1334 1475 1102 308 201 584 495 1199 810 725 947 350 1020 256 722 177 1375 1478 727 593 130